Fourth State Of Matter; Plasma
Plasma is the first state of matter in the universe. Most people only know about the other three states of matter: SOLID, LIQUID, and GAS. But they often forget the existence of the fourth one. You may have learned about the three states of matter solid liquid and gas in the previous lessons. There is a fourth state of matter called Plasma. Let’s start by thinking about ice, when ice is sufficiently heated it melts to form water, it has therefore undergone a change of state from a solid to a liquid recall and assaulted all of the particles are closely packed in a fixed position and therefore has a fixed shape and volume. The particles in a liquid are still touching one another and can move around each other therefore a liquid still has a fixed volume but it takes the shape of its container. What is the change of state that occurs when water is heated to 100 degrees Celsius and the answer is water evaporates from the liquid to a gas? In our case water vapor, the particles in a gas are further away from one another and take the shape and volume of their container for certain substances if we continue to apply heat to their gaseous form another change of state could occur these substances can go from a gas to a state of matter called plasma. For this change of state to occur very strong heat must be applied when heat is sufficiently strong the electrons are stripped from their respective atoms creating free electrons and positive ions although there are both negative and positive particles plasma is neutral overall as there are equal amounts of oppositely charged particles since free electrons are present substances in a plasma form can conduct electricity is what separates a gas from plasma. All gases cannot conduct electricity but plasma can naturally-occurring plasma include lightning and the Northern Lights if we were to go far beyond planet Earthstars also exist in plasma form in fact stars are just hot balls of plasma that can be found in fluorescent light bulbs and neon signs when an electrical current is passed through the mercury vapor in fluorescent lightbulbs it heats the gases sufficiently to strip the electrons and to create plasma screen TVs are made possible due to the state of matter a plasma screen is made of many thousands of tiny dots called pixels which are made of three fluorescent light electrodes emitting the colors red green and blue the combination of these colors can give any the possible color which is why we can see all colors on these means the higher number of pixels the higher the definition and the images will appear sharper and more detailed. Let’s take a trip down memory lane when your physics teacher talked about this state of matter, you probably fell asleep during that class, didn’t you?! Ok! Everyone knows that the atmosphere is GAS, the ocean is LIQUID, and the ground we are standing on is SOLID. These are the three states of matter that ever exist. And the difference among these forms is the level of energy existing in them. Oh but that’s not all! PLASMA is also the fourth state of matter on Earth. How come? Well! In a nutshell, you have an ice cube as solid. If we heat it — the ice cube will melt and dissolve into the liquid. Continue to heat it, the liquid will slowly evaporate, transforming into gas. So what if we continue to provide heat into this gas? Well! When the temperature reaches several thousand, this gas will be ionized. The vast majority of the molecule or atom is left with the only nucleus since the electrons have separated and moved independently. This ionized gas is a mixture of electrons, neutral molecules, and positively and negatively charged ions that move chaotically. And there you have PLASMA. Plasma is the first state of matter in the universe because 99.9% of all visible matter in the universe exists in the state of plasma. The sun is a giant plasma; stars are also the luminous sphere of plasma.
The lightning that strikes during a thunderstorm, or the magical phenomenon of the aurora borealis, is also Plasma. Only on Earth, or some dark planets in the galaxy, can you find substances that exist in 3 states of Solid, Liquid & Gas — which accounts for only 0.1%. Therefore, Plasma is the most powerful “man” in the universe. Plasma’s application in our daily life is very diverse such as plasma lights,
plasma screens, or plasma cutters used in mechanical factories. Especially, a 14 billion USD NETR arc reactor in France can produce plasma with up to 150 million degrees Celsius. Speaking of an arc reactor, we have to mention Tony Stark’s aka Iron Man mini-type arc reactor on his chest. This small “reactor”, which is only a few pounds, can produce a huge source of energy. This energy converts directly into electricity helping Iron Man fly up in the air, or blast power to save the world Well if you believe in that kind of superhero stuff! George Lucas, the creator of Star Wars, did not fool you with his science fiction. Remember the colorful Lightsaber? Yes, it is plasma. Well! Now you know what PLASMA is. Yes, it is the fourth physical state on earth.